To Willy Wally:

Huh… Cold War, I
m really tired, and it doesn’t read well, and I
ll say that’s cause I forgot about it until just before I was about to go to sleep, so I am really tired and not feeling very historical. I’m really sorry. It’s too long as well (over half a page). So, please chop away. Sorry about crap, anti-floppy-A nature of computer. Hope you’re having a good free.

One of the important features of the Cold War is the presence of peace movements which lasted throughout the entire period until the collapse of the Soviet Union. These groups sought to lobby governments in order to decrease the chances and effects of war in a period constantly under the threat of nuclear war.

The dangers of nuclear weapons were recognized right after the second world war, and the first use of a nuclear weapon in Hiroshima. Albert Einstein and British philosopher Bertrand Russell both agreed on the dangers of nuclear weapons and superpower tension and in 1955 issued the Russell-Einstein manifesto, which highlighted the immense danger of nuclear weapons and the need for peace and stability.

Two years later, in 1957, a convention was held at Pugwash, a small village in Canada. The meeting was attended by representatives from 10 countries including the USA, the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom. The Pugwash movement sought a different approach to arms control and aimed at easing the tensions between nations. Although Pugwash representatives were not official national representatives, their high profiles within their nations usually allowed them to influence policies. In this way, Pugwash conventions played important roles in negotiations for treaties such as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (1963) and SALT I (1972).

Larger, public peace movements also had influence on the Cold War. Although peace demonstrations and organizations existed in Europe in the years immediately following WWII, these movements were closely tied to communist groups and therefore discredited by western governments. However in 1958, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in Britain (CND) was formed and gained enormous public support. CND organized national rallies and marches in an attempt to lobby the British government to end its nuclear weapons program. Although the movement waned during the détente period, it was revived during the 1980s in response to increase tension in the new cold war.

At this time, another group, The European Nuclear Disarmament (END) movement was launched. END incorporated peace movements from all European countries and believed that disarmament would only be achieved if peace movements were coordinated internationally. END formed links with and encouraged peace movements in Eastern European nations such as Hungary, East Germany and the Soviet Union.

Blah blah blah. Please fix it and I will love you forever.

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